Choose a job you would be interested in pursuing to prepare for this assignment.
Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper in which you address the following:
o Conduct a job analysis for your selected job using one of the job analysis methods and discuss how it could be used within an organization.
o Evaluate the reliability and validity of your job analysis.
o Evaluate different performance appraisal methods that might be applied to your chosen job.
o Explain the various benefits and vulnerabilities of each performance appraisal method.
A Job analysis is a way to illustrate the responsibilities of a job and the trait necessary to accomplish them successfully (Spector, 2008). There are two main methods of job analysis, the person-oriented and the job-oriented approaches. The person oriented describes a rounded view of the qualities needed, and the job oriented describes the technical information about the tasks associated with it. The job analysis can by accomplished by objective and subjective measures. Even though these performance appraisals often come with limitations, they are just as essential in being able to maintain employee well-being, safety, and compliance (Spector, 2008).
Consulting Job Analysis
Consulting is a good job for an I/O psychologist to work in; the job descriptions are broad and can vary from business to business. Using the job-oriented analysis a person can learn all the technical sides about the nature of the job. There are five levels that discuss the hierarchy of this analysis: position, duty, task, activity, and element (Spector, 2008). A position is a assortment of the tasks that can be performed by a single person. There are different positions that are consultant related, senior consultant, business solutions consultant, and HR workforce consultant to name a few. A duty is the foremost factor of the job. The duty section is a group of tasks that need to be completed. Some duties a consultant might see would be: parsing out needs of organization, bringing forth contracts, helping to develop parts for projects. Basically anything that helps the organization and keeps the client’s life organized. A task is a piece of work that is completed and accomplishes an objective of some kind (Spector, 2008). Tasks can be broken down into separate activities, which are individual parts that come together to make the task. Lastly are elements, otherwise known as actions. Elements are specific actions that are taken in working towards the task. If a consultant’s task were administering promotional testing one element he or she would need to complete would be creating the test for the employees to take.
Reliability and Validity
Job analysis validation can be shown through a three-dimension approach, the degree of difficulty, frequency of performance, and the importance of the job. The degree of difficulty deals with how hard a task is to comprehend and how hard the task is to master. These measurements are important because they identify high risk vs. high potential performances. Some of the difficulties can be complex, social, or tactile in nature. For a consultant the degree of difficulty depends on the task at hand, but mainly deals with human resources. The frequency of performance is a dimension that deals with the frequency of tasks performed. Tasks that happen often are considered to be strong in validity when describing a person’s performance. Lastly, the importance of the job dimension talks about the tasks that are being measured. Certain tasks have higher importance but also carry with them stronger consequences. For a consultant this could be anything from promotional testing to the stock market. A person who does poorly when performing a very important task will come out with a significantly poorer image than a person who did badly in a less important task.
Performance Appraisal Methods
Objective performance Measures
Performance appraisal methods used when assessing job performance comes in two forms: objective performance measures and subjective judgments. Objective performance measures are results of job behaviors and counts of various behaviors. For a consultant the objective performance measures would measure how many days he or she had been absent from work, or how well he did on his monthly review. In many companies the human resources department is in charge of keeping track of all employee measures. Some examples of objective job performance are accidents, lateness, absences, incidents at work, and productivity. The objective job performance has many limitations; many of the objective measures are not applicable for all organizations (Spector, 2008).
Subjective Performance Measures
Subjective judgments are ratings from the employee’s superiors. The superiors have to be knowledgeable about the employee’s job performance in order to be considered for the subjective measures. A subjective job analysis is the most frequently used job performance analysis (Spector, 2008). Many organizations require bosses to complete employee performance appraisals annually. There are a few different ways in which a boss could go about creating them. Graphic rating forms, behavior-focused rating forms, and developments of behavior-focused forms are all types of subjective measurement analysis methods. The graphic ratings form is a multipoint scale that uses several dimensions in order to rate an employees performance. Behavior-focused forms that discuss traits such as attendance and quality of work performed. There are three different types of behavior-focused forms: behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS), mixed standard scale (MSS), and behavior observation scale (BOS). BARS is a rating scale that uses behavioral terms to describe response choices. This scale was created in order to assess an employee’s organizational skills on a performance dimension. MSS is a rating scale that provides the rater with multiple behaviors that vary in effectiveness. Concurrently, BOS is almost identical to the MSS because it also uses critical incidents as reflections of the employee’s workplace ethics. Both appraisals have benefits and vulnerabilities attached to them.
Benefits and Vulnerabilities
Subjective Performance Measures
Subjective performance appraisal measures come with a few benefits, they show a rounded picture of an employee’s work performance. It is beneficial because it includes qualitative information instead of limiting itself to quantitative data. Many organizations feel qualitative information is more important in the bottom line (Spector, 2008). Subjective measurements have some limitations as well; some of the scales can be unreliable and also filled with personal biases. Subjective rating scales depend on the inexactness of human judgment, the rater’s frame of mind, perceptions, background, and other factors (Spector, 2008). One way to reduce the human biases would be to have multiple people provide feedback on employees.
Objective Performance Measures
The benefit to using objective performance measures comes with many advantages. Initially, it can be easy to understand the importance of objective measures in relation to the criteria of one’s job performance. An example of thing being work absences, an employee who has perfect attendance is an indicator of good work ethics. Also, the quantitative nature of objective measures makes it easy to contrast the job performance of multiple employees working in the same job (Spector, 2008). Using the attendance example, an organization can compare the absences of every employee up for promotion and promote the employee who came to work the most. Even though objective performance measures have many benefits they also come with several limitations.
Objective performance appraisal measures are vulnerable because they are limited to tasks and jobs in which productivity is not a part of the job performance. Additionally, some criteria are not well illustrated, such as determining the tolerable number of absences that suggest respectable job performance (Spector, 2008). Objective measures fall short because they also pick quantity over quality. Lastly, what is seen in an objective measure is not essentially under the power of the person being assessed (Spector, 2008).
Both performance appraisal and job analysis measures are fundamental factors in the success of a business and its employees. Performance appraisals are used in figuring out the promotional worth of its employees and job analyses are used to document the tasks and nature of the job title. Both of these elements are critical for an organization to have in order to maintain workplace harmony, workplace productivity, and maintaining the general success of the organization.
Jeffrey R. Spence (a, ⁎., & Lisa Keeping (b, 1. (2011). Conscious rating distortion in performance appraisal: A review, commentary, and proposed framework for research. Human Resource Management Review, 21(New Developments in Performance Management), 85-95. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2010.09.013
Spector, P. E. (2008). Industrial and organizational psychology: Research and practice (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.