Information and Software Technology – Areas of Artificial Intelligence

This is a multi paged guide to the subject: Information and Software Technology (IST)


Areas of Artificial Intelligence

Intelligence Systems

An intelligence system is a system with artificial intelligence that is able to use data to make decisions.

Example of intelligence systems are computer games and Deep Blue (Chess artificial Intelligence)

Knowledge Basis

An intelligence system needs a set of rules, often referred to as a knowledge basis

Knowledge basis contain two types of knowledge:

1.       Factual – Information (for example, medical computers knowledge basis include information about diseases and systems).

2.       Heuristic – set of rules (for example, computers often use IF- THEN language).


Demons (aka Daemons) are programs that are activated when a value is triggered. For example, the anti-virus software on your computer is a demon.


An agent is a program that performs the information gathering task. Search Engines on the web are agents.

Expert System

An expert system is a program that provides recommendations and decisions about a problem. They can be created using programming language such as Prolog or Lisp. Programs that diagnose potential problems with a computer are examples of an expert system.



Neural Networks

An artificial neural network is the connections between processors. Neural networks are particularly good at recognising complex patterns.


Figure 2: Neural networks make connections by recognising patterns.

Modelling and Simulation

Modelling and simulations allow the user to understand and replicate different phenomena. Some examples of how models and simulations are used include:

·         Financial Modelling

·         Computer Flight Simulations

·         Nuclear Weapons Testing

·         Financial Loan Simulation


A computer model is an outline of what happens in the real world. The description is programmed in such a way that the computer can manipulate the phenomena as it was the real thing. These models have variable values that can be used to predict future events. For example, a meteorologist uses models to predict the weather. They can do this by entering data on wind pressure, temperature, humidity and air pressure (variables) into their model on weather.


Simulations are models to make what if predictions. By making changes to the data they can observe the effect of their changes. Flight simulations are a good example of a “what if prediction”.


Gracias amigo.

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